Read e-book online American School Reform: What Works, What Fails, and Why PDF
By Joseph P. McDonald
McDonald and his colleagues lay out numerous interrelated rules in what they name a concept of motion house. usually schooling coverage will get so formidable that enforcing it turns into a close to impossibility. motion area, in spite of the fact that, is what takes form while gifted educators, leaders, and reformers consultant the social capital of civic leaders and the monetary capital of governments, foundations, companies, and different backers towards actual effects. Exploring those notable collaborations via their lifespans and their impacts on destiny efforts, the authors supply political hopethat reform efforts can paintings, and that our faculties might be made larger.
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Additional info for American School Reform: What Works, What Fails, and Why
Of special interest to us is the fact that in the fi rst decade of the twenty-fi rst century, New York City’s public schools moved from being one of the world’s most derided school systems—querulously and opaquely governed—to being an innovative and influential system. 2 million students today in close to fi fteen hundred schools—an enrollment roughly twice that of Los Angeles Unified, the next biggest US school district, and more than three times that of Chicago. When we began our work in 1995, New York had thirty-two elected community school district boards overseeing K–8 education, a politically fractious central board of education, and a chancellor appointed by this board to oversee central operations as well as several citywide subdistricts (for high schools, specialized schools, and poorly performing schools).
It is a city that tends toward mayoral regimes, business compacts, grand civic coalitions, mass organizing at the grassroots level, and collaboration among foundations. All five of these phenomena have played roles in the recent history of school reform there, as this fi rst story of action space illustrates. In 1987, then US secretary of education William Bennett pronounced the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) the worst in the nation (Hess, 1991). He focused especially on the system’s management. Inheriting generations of consolidated political culture, the central office had swollen with political patronage, and had also become “corporate” in a stodgy midtwentieth-century sense.
Then in chapters 5 and 6, we examine closely and respectively the dynamics of collapse and of connection. Finally, in chapter 7, we test a model of our theory. Chapter three Action Space in Chicago and New York I n this chapter, we explore the late twentieth- and early twenty-firstcentury school reform histories of Chicago and New York. Schooling in these cities underwent massive change during this period, and reform efforts there proved influential across the United States. But stories of these efforts—even those we tell here—can lend themselves to a simpler reading than is warranted.