Luis B. Oliveira, Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky,'s Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators (Analog PDF
By Luis B. Oliveira, Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky, Chris J. M. Verhoeven, Manuel M. Silva
The subsequent are a few gains of study and layout of Quadrature Oscillators make it diverse from the prevailing literature on digital oscillators: (1) concentrate on quadrature oscillators with actual quadrature and occasional phase-noise, required through smooth verbal exchange structures; (2) a close comparative learn of quadrature LC and RC oscillators, together with cross-coupled LC quasi-sinusoidal oscillators, cross-coupled RC rest oscillators, a quadrature RC oscillator-mixer, and two-integrator oscillators; (3) a radical research of the influence of mismatches at the phase-error and the phase-noise; (4) the belief that quadrature RC oscillators could be a useful substitute to LC oscillators while quarter and value might be minimized (in cross-coupled RC oscillators either the quadrature-error and phase-noise are diminished, while in LC oscillators the coupling raises the phase-noise.
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Additional info for Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
This approach provides a good quadrature relationship, but the amplitude of the outputs changes significantly with the frequency. The I and Q branches have, respectively, a low-pass and a high-pass characteristic. The two output amplitudes are only equal at the pole frequency, p = 1/RC. The design procedure is simply to set the pole frequency to the carrier frequency. However, the absolute value of RC varies with temperature and with process, having a direct influence on the value of the frequency at which there are quadrature signals with equal amplitude.
2 Circuit Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quadrature Relaxation Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 High Level Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Quadrature Relaxation Oscillator without Mismatches . . . . . . . . . . 3 Quadrature Relaxation Oscillator with Mismatches . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Simulation Results .
In conventional heterodyne receivers the input impedance of the mixer must be 50 ⍀ because we need an external image reject filter, which should be terminated by 50 ⍀ impedance. , low IF receiver), there is no need for 50 ⍀ matching, but the mixer input needs to be matched to the LNA output. The isolation between the mixer ports is critical. This quantifies the interaction among the RF, IF (or baseband for homodyne receivers), and LO ports. The LO to RF feedthrough results in LO leakage to the LNA, and eventually to the antenna; the RF to LO feedthrough allows strong interferers in the RF path to interact with the local oscillator that drives the mixer.